Head-trained: Refers to a method of vine training. Head-trained vines are free-standing; a trunk is formed from which several branches will grow vertically, resembling a small tree.
Vine Training: The process of shaping the vine’s permanent wood. In cool regions, vines trained low absorb more heat reflected off the ground, which helps ripen the fruit. In warmer regions, vines are trained higher so they don’t absorb reflections.
Cordon-trained: Refers to a method of vine training. Cordon-trained vines are supported by a trellising system; typically one or two cordons, or branches, are trained horizontally out of the main trunk.
Alberello: See Head-trained.