Temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours associated with specific events such as a hailstorm. In contrast, climate refers to long-term patterns.
This can refer to whole-cluster pressing and/or whole-cluster fermentation, where pressing and/or fermentation happen without the stems having been removed from the berries. Stem inclusion can add more tannins and structure to the finished wine, but can also impart additional flavors. If the clusters are picked early in the maturation process, the greener, more flexible stems might impart vegetal or herbal notes. If the clusters are allowed to hang on the vine longer, given time to achieve full polyphenolic ripeness and lignification of the stems (turning rigid, brown and woody), the flavors imparted will be more mellow, earthy and spicy.
Largely synonymous with "Vinification," winemaking is the process by which harvested grapes are crushed, fermented (and otherwise manipulated through yeast inoculations, temperature control, punch-downs, pump-overs, racking, oak-chip additions, filtering, etc.), aged in barrel, steel tank or other vessel, and finally bottled.