What does it mean to say a wine is “dry”? And which wines are driest?

Ask Dr Vinny

Hello there! I'm Dr. Vinifera, but you can call me Vinny. Ask me your toughest wine questions, from the fine points of etiquette to the science of winemaking. And don't worry, I'm no wine snob—you can also ask me those "dumb questions" you're too embarrased to ask your wine geek friends! I hope you find my answers educational, empowering and even amusing. And don't forget to check out my most asked questions and my full archives for all my Q&A classics.

Dear Dr. Vinny,

What does it mean to say a wine is “dry”? And which wines are driest?

—Sampath, Sri Lanka

Dear Sampath,

Not everyone uses the term “dry” the same way, but for the vast majority of the wine world, a wine that is “dry” has no perceptible sweetness.

Most of the table wines we drink are dry. Winemakers use the term to indicate that the sugar from the grapes has been completely converted to alcohol during the fermentation process; if the sugar is gone, the wine is “dry.” If fermentation is incomplete and there is some leftover sugar, that residual sugar contributes sweetness, and those wines can range from “off-dry” (or semi-sweet) to very sweet dessert wines, depending on the volume of residual sugar.

Some wine lovers use the terms “dry” or “drying” to communicate how the wine’s tannins feel in their mouth, which can be confusing, as not all dry wines feel dry—many wines are technically dry but might seem lush, mouthwatering or even sweetly fruity. You have probably experienced the sensation of dryness on the finish of very tannic wines, which might also be described as a puckering or tugging sensation on the inside of your cheeks.

As far as which wine is the driest, again, most table wines have virtually no residual sugar. But depending on the balance of the wine’s acidity, alcohol and weight, the perception of dryness will change. There are so many other variables at play here—the type of grapes used, vintage variation, winemaking decisions and even the temperature and vessel the wine is served in, let alone personal preferences and tastes. Overall, bold, dense red wines like Nebbiolo, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon are most likely to feel the driest.

—Dr. Vinny

Ask Dr. Vinny Tasting Descriptors

More In Dr. Vinny

Should I refill my own wineglass, or ask the host or server to?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains the etiquette or wine service, for hosts and for …

May 23, 2022

What’s the best way to remove the cork from an imperial (a 6-liter bottle of wine)?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains best practices for opening—and serving—large-for…

May 16, 2022

Are wine tasting note descriptors listed in order of prominence?

Wine Spectator's resident wine expert Dr. Vinny explains that wine tasting notes are not …

May 9, 2022

How can a wine taster distinguish between so many different types of "pepper" in a wine?

Wine Spectator's resident wine expert Dr. Vinny explains where some pepper notes in wine …

May 2, 2022

Is it OK to bring a bottle of rosé to dinner at a restaurant?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains corkage etiquette and BYO Dos and Don'ts

Apr 25, 2022

Why don't most 1.5-liter wine bottles have a vintage date?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains why many wines are non-vintage, especially …

Apr 18, 2022