What’s the difference between sulfates and sulfites?

Ask Dr Vinny

Hello there! I'm Dr. Vinifera, but you can call me Vinny. Ask me your toughest wine questions, from the fine points of etiquette to the science of winemaking. And don't worry, I'm no wine snob—you can also ask me those "dumb questions" you're too embarrased to ask your wine geek friends! I hope you find my answers educational, empowering and even amusing. And don't forget to check out my most asked questions and my full archives for all my Q&A classics.

Dear Dr. Vinny,

What’s the difference between sulfates and sulfites?

—Fred, Boca Raton, Fla.

Dear Fred,

Both sulfates and sulfites are sulfur-based compounds. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid, and you probably encounter them on a daily basis. Sodium lauryl sulfate, a strong detergent that aids in removing grease by binding oil to water, is in everything from dish soap and floor cleaners to body washes and shampoo; some people feel it’s too harsh for body products, which is why some shampoos and other products are advertised as "sulfate-free." Epsom salts are also made of sulfates. Sulfates aren’t involved in wine production, but some beer makers use calcium sulfate—also known as brewers’ gypsum—to correct mineral deficiencies in water during the brewing process.

Sulfites are naturally occurring compounds found in all wines; they act as a preservative by inhibiting microbial growth. Consuming sulfites is generally harmless, and they are found in all kinds of things, from molasses to dried fruit. But some people—especially asthmatics—can have an allergic reaction to sulfites, which is why you see the warning that wine contains sulfites. Unfortunately, folks that experience headaches or flushing after drinking wine often wrongly blame sulfites because of that warning on the label. It causes a lot of confusion.

Even though sulfites are naturally occurring, most winemakers also add sulfur dioxide during the winemaking process to ensure against spoilage.

—Dr. Vinny

Ask Dr. Vinny

More In Dr. Vinny

What does it mean to say a wine has “legs”?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains the physics behind wine "legs," or "tears," and …

Sep 2, 2020

Does the shape of a wineglass actually matter?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny offers tips for picking out the right wineglass.

Aug 31, 2020

If a wine tastes like chocolate, does that mean there's actual chocolate in the wine?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains where all those flavors in wine come from.

Aug 28, 2020

What is a field blend?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains this traditional grapegrowing method and why …

Aug 26, 2020

What are the legal requirements for selling supplement-infused wine?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny provides resources for anyone interested in starting a …

Aug 24, 2020

What does it mean if a wine has a "clean finish"?

Wine Spectator's expert Dr. Vinny explains two key wine-tasting terms.

Aug 21, 2020